Bulletin of The Iwate Agricultural Research Center No.11

Development of The Small Ridge ? Tillage Planting Machine and Estimates of The Effect of Its Introduction for Soybean (Glycine max L.) Cultivation in Drained Paddy Fields
Akiyoshi TAKAHASHI, Kazuya OIKAWA, Mayuko WATANABE , Yuichi IMURA and Kiyoto OGUROSAWA
@We developed and estimated the effects of a sowing machine for small ridge-tillage planting (SRP) using a rotary harrow for soybean production stability in drained paddy fields. This is to carry out needed countermeasures against moisture damage in a simple and low-cost way. By changing the arrangement of the froe spikes on the rotary harrow, the SRP machine can sow seeds simultaneously on ridges of up to around 10cm. Furthermore, attaching chisel spikes enhances the draining capability of cultivated land. In addition, attaching gauge wheels and rake screens, increasing the thickness of the angular bar, and/or adding brackets could improve the operability, strength, and applicability of the SRP machine.
@Soybean yield increased by 10% or more using the SRP, in comparison with level row planting. Even without using a high-horsepower tractor, the SRP machine is highly efficient, planting 3-4 rows with a work speed of 2km/per hour. It is possible to introduce it to large-scale cultivation of around 13-20ha, and the costs required for installation are low. When the SRP machine is introduced to a cultivation area of 15ha, preliminary calculations show that yearly agricultural income increases by 440,000-554,000 yen.
Tissue Culture Techniques for Gentiana spp. for Seed Production
Nobue HOSHI, Toshikazu TAKESAWA, Jun ABE and Tsutomu SASAKI
@The Gentian varieties cultivated by Iwate Prefecture are almost all F1 hybrids, so it requires a great deal of labor to maintain and multiply the parent stock and its selfed recessive traits. To that end, we tried to produce seeds using tissue culture methods, which can be more efficient and less laborious for parent stock maintenance and multiplication when compared to field cultivation. We tested leaf culture, overwintering bud disk culture, and liquid shaking culture techniques. Callus and shoot formation is possible through leaf cultures when explants are cultivated with a GC2 culture medium (a mixture of 0.5mg/l naphthalene acetic acid, 10.0mg/l thidiazuron, and 3% sucrose) added to a MS medium. We also examined family/genealogical line differences, individual differences, and the condition of the explant. Additionally, we took the overwintering buds formed through the cultivation process and cut a 5mm thick slice that included a bud node (called an overwintering bud disk). Callus and shoot formation occurred when cultivating the slice in the GC2 medium. We subcultured the seedlings that formed that overwintering buds in a hormone-free MS liquid medium, and a shaking culture performed at 120rpm encouraged growth. Furthermore, cultivating the shoots produced by the leaf culture at a 15KC temperature promotes the growth and preservation of overwintering buds. By combining all of the above techniques, tissue culturing is seen to be practicable throughout the whole process flow, promoting growth, preservation of family lines, and root acclimation (except for a few family lines). Then we integrated all of these techniques together and devised a work schedule of actual seed production using these techniques, and determined the difficulty levels of the various family lines and tissue culture techniques. From the above research, we can expect that Gentian seed production using tissue culture techniques will contribute to a reliable supply of superior seeds and the promotion of efficient plant breeding, along with stable management for Gentian farmers and the development of Gentian production centers.
New Apple Cultivar eIWATE No.7f
Takayuki HATAKEYAMA, Tsukasa TAKAHASHI, Hiroshi OHNO, Kazuo ONODA, Hiroaki TAMURA, Hiroshi ONO, Mariko OKUDAIRA, Hitoshi SASAKI, Michiko KAWADA, Masato SASAKI, Katsuki ISHIKAWA, Satoru SUZUKI, Masaaki KUME, Tomonori ASAKAWA, Yu-ko NAGASAKI, Shoei FUJINE and Hidetsugu SATO
@eIwate No.7f was cultivated from a cross between eMegumif (father) and eTsugaruf (mother) in 1991. It bore fruit for the first time in 2000. It was a mid-season cultivar that could be harvested at the end of September, and it was christened eIwate No.7f in 2001 because of its superior traits such as taste and easily alterable color. Because of its outstanding fruit quality and cultivation methods, we applied for cultivar registration in accordance with the Plant Variety Protection & Seed Act on March 14, 2008. eIwate No. 7f was registered as a cultivar on September 10, 2009.
@The tree figure,tree viger, and size of the eIwate No.7f tree are of medium quality. The flower bud has good epiphytic properties, and tends to bear fruit early. Its sprouting and flowering processes take place at almost the same time as the gFujih cultivar. Smaller than the
eTsugaruf cultivar, the weight of the eIwate No.7f fruit is around 300g, with a round, spherical shape and colors ranging from dark reds to rich burgundies. It is a beautiful fruit, and discolorations and other superficial imperfections are rare. Its sugar content (Brix) is 13-14%,
and its malic acid content measures around 0.3-0.4g/100ml, resulting in a mild sourness. The flesh is harder than the eTsugaru,f resulting in a pleasing crunch. In addition, the fruit flesh resists browning even after the skin has been peeled or sliced off.
@At the Iwate Agriculture Research Center (in Narita, Kitakami City), eIwate No.7fs maturation at the end of September is earlier than the eJonagoldf cultivar and later than the eTsugaruf. Only a small amount of early fruit fall and preharvest drop. eIwate No.7fs pollen has a high compatibility with principal cultivars, with an over 80% fruit-bearing rate when its pollen parent is eFujif, eTsugaruf, eKiouf, or eSansafD Vice versa, when using the eIwate No. 7f as a pollen parent, the previous four cultivars have a fruit-bearing rate of over 90%,
demonstrating a high compatibility with principal cultivars.
@In 2009 it was presumed that eIwate No.7fs seed parent was eTsugaruf, and its pollen parent was ePriscillafD The SSR allele was inherited without contradiction from the parents, so we determined that the pollen parent was ePriscillaf.
@After gene analysis of black spot resistance, it was found that it did not possess the Vf gene. In addition, like the eOrinf cultivar, the eIwate No.7fwas found to be vulnerable to black spots after vaccination trials.
The New Grape Cultivar eIwate No.3f
Hiroshi OHNO, Hiroaki TAMURA, Hiroshi ONO, Shigeru OBARA, Kazuo ONODA, Hitosh i SASAKI, Akihiro MIURA, Satoru SUZUKI and Shouei FUJINE
@e Iwate No.3fis a new grape cultivar with red large berries, resulted from open pollination of eHoney redf. It blooms a few days later than the eCampbell Earlyf, almost at the same time as the eBeniIzuf. The fruit ripens in late September, which is slightly earlier than the eBeniIzuf. Red in color, a fruit cluster weights around 350g, and a single elliptical berry weights around 10g. Soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity averaged 18 to 20% and 0.4 to 0.5g/100mL, respectively. The low temperature resistance is the same as eCambell earlyf, and there are extremely few occurrences of fruit cracking.
@Because this grape cultivar is so suited to Iwate Prefecturefs climate conditions, and because of its superiority in cultivation characteristics and fruit quality, we have applied for the registration of eIwate No.3f as a new grape cultivar.
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