Bulletin of The Iwate Agricultural Research Center No.10
Summary

The distribution of Viola L. in rural area of Iwate Prefecture and the influence of the difference of management on the population density of Viola spp.
Shin-ichi TAKEDA
@There were eight species of Viola L. (V.rossii, V.rostrata var.japonica, V.kusanoana, V.grypoceras, V.obtusa, V.mandshurica, V.betonicifolia var.albescens andV.verecunda) present in rural area of Iwate Prefecture inland part. A species composition was different in five types of landscapes (Forest floor on the hill zone, Forest edge on the foot hill, Forest edge by the farm pond, Farm pond-side grassland and Paddy-side grassland). A species composition seemed to change corresponding to the light factor and soil moisture of the landscape.
@At the abandoned paddy-side grassland and the abandoned farm pond-side grassland, the frequency and an individual density by the ocular estimation of Viola spp. was very low in comparison with either grassland that continuous grass-cutting management. The stop of the grass-cutting and the water management caused the decline of the species diversity. It seems that continuous cultivation and grass-cutting management must be maintained to sustain specific density of Viola spp. At the improved farm pond-grassland, the number of the species of Viola spp. was a few than that in the traditional farm pond-grassland, but the frequency and an individual density was equally in comparison with paddy-side grassland that continuous grass-cutting management. It thought about the environmental heterogeneity of the farm pond, such as forest edge, with the cause that a species diversity was being maintained.
Field Introduction Techniques of Crabapple Varieties for Pollination
Tsukasa TAKAHASHI , Hiroaki TAMURA , Hitoshi SASAKI and Tomonori ASAKAWA
@The purpose of this research is the development of efficient field introduction techniques of crabapple varieties for pollination into an apple orchard consisting of a single cultivar. We examined several pollination methods: introducing large, pot-raised nursery stock, top working, and combining several kinds of rootstocks with crabapple varieties. The result of these experiments was that commercial variety trees produced fruit when trained large nursery stock raised in biodegradable pots were combined with a single cultivar in the apple orchard. We found that top working was effective when the graft was introduced to the crown of the tree, resulting in improved fruit and seed production in commercial varieties. When selecting suitable crabapple varieties for pollination with main rootstocks, we learned that the JM7 rootstock was effective.
Breeding of a New Rice Variety "Tsubuyutaka"
Akira ABE, Hiromi SUGAWARA, Tsutomu SASAKI, Masato TAKAKUSAGI, Hiroko NAKANO, Yutaka KIUCHI, Kazuhiko TAMURA, Shinsuke NAKAJO, Masahiro TAKAHASHI, Hiroya ODANAKA, Yoshiaki OGI, Shigeru OGATA, Yoshiaki TERUI, Takashi SATO and Yoshinori KAMIYAMA
@A new paddy rice variety "Tsubuyutaka" was developed by Iwate Agricultural Research Center in 2009. The variety was selected from the cross between "Ko70" and "Fukuhibiki" conducted in 1994 by the ex-Kennan branch of Iwate Agricultural Experiment Station. This variety was intended as a high grain-yielding variety with cold tolerance at the booting stage and panicle blast resistance.
@"Tsubuyutaka" has been tested as a local line number "Iwanan29" since 2001. It was registered as a new rice variety in Iwate Prefecture in 2009 for its uses as feed grain, production of rice flour, etc.
@Characteristics of "Tsubuyutaka" are as follows:
(1) It belongs to the late-maturity group, maturing concurrent with "Hitomebore".
(2) It has high tolerance to sterility caused by low temperatures at the booting stage, superior to that of "Fukuhibiki" and "Bekoaoba".
(3) It has high lodging resistance under transplanting/direct seeding cultivation, stronger than "Hitomebore".
(4) The grain yield is higher than that of "Hitomebore".
(5) The grain quality and the eating quality are inferior to those of "Hitomebore".
Breeding of a New Rice Variety "Tsubuminori"
Hiromi SUGAWARA, Akira ABE, Masato TAKAKUSAGI, Tsutomu SASAKI, Shinsuke NAKAJO, Yutaka KIUCHI, Hiroko NAKANO, Kazuhiko TAMURA, Yoshiaki OGI, Shigeru OGATA, Hiroya ODANAKA and Yoshinori KAMIYAMA
@A new paddy rice variety "Tsubuminori" was developed by Iwate Agricultural Research Center in 2009.The variety was selected from the cross between "Hokuriku 188" and "Iwanan 20" conducted in 1996 at the ex-Quality Rice Breeding & Cultivation Research Section of Iwate Agricultural Reseach Center (Esashi-ku, Oshu City),and was intended as a middle-maturing variety with cold weather tolerance and high yield. Since 2003, it was given a performance test and other specific tests.
@"Tsubuminori" has been tested as local line number "Iwate 85" since 2006. Registration as a new rice variety of Iwate Prefecture was applied for in 2009.
@Characteristics of "Tsubuminori" are as follows:
(1) Belongs to the middle-early maturity group, maturing at the same time as "Akitakomachi" and slightly later than "Iwatekko".
(2) High tolerance to sterility caused by low temperatures at booting stage, superior to "Akitakomachi".
(3) The yields of all brown grains are clearly superior to "Akitakomachi". "Tsubuminori" would be planted in the same areas as "Iwatekko" and "Akitakomachi".
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